Pandora’s Brew: The New Ayahuasca Part 6

Oklevueha Native American Church

In addition to the widespread appropriation of Native North American culture that characterizes neo-shamanic discourse, the current spate of ayahuasca churches in the U.S. adds insult to injury by claiming that their practices are legal because they are official branches of the Native American Church, specifically the Oklevueha Native American Church (ONAC), led by James Mooney. At least four churches and one retreat center have been established under the ONAC aegis focusing specifically on ayahuasca (though they may offer other services and products as well including herbal elixirs, cuddle parties and the ceremonial use of Life Frequencies Essentials and Chakra Tools computer software). These churches falsely claim to be offering legal ayahuasca ceremonies in the United States. Membership in these churches is available to the public for a fee, and in keeping with the common framework of Amazonian shamanic tourism, they charge a second (usually much higher) fee for ceremonial services.

Death in Kentucky

At least one of these churches was the site of a death associated with a ceremony, apparently an ayahuasca ceremony. Lindsay Poole, 33, became unresponsive when she fell during a nighttime ceremony with the Oklevueha Native American Church of the Peaceful Mountain Way (PMW) in Berea, Kentucky. Ceremonies were held in a store-front building, “almost on Main Street,” said Madison County coroner Jimmy Cornelison. When police arrived, they found Poole dead. Mr. Cornelison is unable to release an autopsy report because the case is under investigation by federal authorities. He says there’s a possibility that someone could be charged with criminal offense in the death, if the feds rule that the use of ayahuasca was in fact illegal, constituting trafficking in a controlled substance.

Although Mr. Cornelison says that the group is no longer operating out of their store front, they are apparently still offering ayahuasca ceremonies in Kentucky. Signing up for one is as simple as adding a date to your online shopping cart and checking out with PayPal. Another ayahuasca church operating in Kentucky, AyaQuest, has suggested that the PMW leaders were inexperienced and shouldn’t have been leading ceremonies:

I remember conducting [PMW’s leaders’] first journey and I was pleased to meet them. They left Aya Quest in October 2015 to start their own Church, I was concerned they were not ready, but it was theirs to do and I wont go into details here…In my humble opinion I feel they should suspend ceremonies until the investigation is complete but I don’t see that reflected on their website and I find that troubling.

At least one former participant felt the same way.

I found the ceremony leader…to lack deep enough energy work ability to adequately handle the full breath [breadth?] of spirit energies that potentially open up in Aya sessions. He has some education in Psychology (BA major) and relies on the verbiage of the profession to speak during the process but I experienced his actually ability to hold the energy during the sessions and to work with and effectively help and release energies to be limited and, in some cases, inadequate. I suggest if one wishes deep and safe help during an Ayahuasca ceremony to seek help from a true experienced Shaman. I do not recommend this place or this leader. 

Other participants offer glowing recommendations, however.

The point that I would like my readers to consider is not whether the individuals leading the ceremony in question were adequate to the task or not. The question is: Can the DEA effectively regulate this issue? How? Is it the role of the DEA to decide who is prepared and qualified to safely lead an ayahuasca ceremony, in which strong physical reactions often go hand in hand with overwhelming spiritual and emotional experiences? This is a matter for debate and disagreement even among indigenous and mestizo shamans in the Amazon—can we really expect the U.S. federal government to be able to solve the problem? The current framework of legalization, based on gaining an exemption from the DEA, simply does not address this issue adequately. Nor can it. Nor should it. We need another system.

Although Mr. Cornelison—and likely the local and federal police—seem clear that the church activities are illegal, the press is less convinced. At least two outlets (WLKY  and WKYT) claim that the state of Kentucky allows registered members of the Native American Church to use ayahuasca legally. Their failure to discern the truth  propagates continued misunderstandings.

Furthermore, the Lexington Herald Leader stated that the death occurred in conjunction with a Native American Church ceremony—failing to distinguish between the ONAC branches and the legitimate Native American Churches of North America. Such statements reflect poorly on the legitimate and long-standing Native American Churches.

Neo-shamanism and the (real) Native American Church

By attempting to forge themselves a pathway toward legitimacy and legality in the US, these ayahuasca churches have taken a square peg—Amazonian shamanism—and tried to force it into the round hole of Native American Church practice. In doing so they have opened themselves to a host of criticisms and challenges. For one thing, the Native American Church was founded to protect the ceremonial use of peyote and the spiritual path that developed around it—not marijuana, not ayahuasca. ONAC’s campaign to legalize marijuana and other entheogens as sacraments of the Native American Church has aroused the ire of the National Council of Native American Churches, who have participated in lawsuits against the Mooneys and ONAC and who have vigorously and vociferously denounced any association with James Mooney and family, with ONAC and its branch churches, and with the use of anything other than peyote in the ceremonies of the Native American Church (Brief of Amici Curiae the National Council of Native American Churches et al., Mooney v. Holder, No. 14-15143. (US 9th Cir. Court of Appeals, July 25); NACNA 2016).

Furthermore, the commodification of spirituality is anathema to Native North American people. Whereas payment for shamanic services in the Amazon is standard practice, to Native North American people, payment for a religious ceremony or for membership in a church is unacceptable (“AIM resolution, May 11, 1984” and “Resolution of the 5th Annual Meeting of the Traditional Elders Circle, October 5, 1980,” quoted in Churchill 2003). And yet, that is the model that ONAC and ONAC-affiliated churches have adopted in order to promulgate their claims—and fill their coffers.

Oklevueha Native American Church

The Oklevueha Native American Church is headed by James Warren “Flaming Eagle” Mooney, who claims to be a member of the Oklevueha band of Seminole Indians and a descendant of the Seminole leader Billy Osceola Powell (ONAC 2016). His Seminole membership, however, has been denied by the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Brown 2016). Mooney’s son, Michael, heads his own church, formerly affiliated with ONAC, called the Native American Church of Hawaii, which uses cannabis as a substitute for peyote in their ceremonies. In 2014, Michael Mooney and ONAC-Hawaii lost a case in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals that sought legal status for their use of cannabis. The Mooneys have been granted one victory, however, and that was for the sacramental use of peyote by non-Native Americans in the state of Utah, as long as they are members of the Native American Church and are using peyote in “bona fide religious ceremonies” (State of Utah v. Mooney, No. 20010787 (Supreme Court Utah June 22, 2004)).

Screenshot from the ONAC “About” page. Pictured are Oklevueha Native American Church leaders James “Flaming Eagle” Mooney and Richard “He Who Has the Foundation” Swallow. (

Despite the limited scope of this ruling, not to mention other court losses and the ongoing arrest and prosecution of ONAC members for possession of marijuana and other activities (Agar 2015; State of Ariz. v. Tracy Elise, No. CR2013-001555-007 DT (Superior Ct. Ariz. Maricopa Cty. March 2, 2016)), ONAC promises its members and affiliated branches wide protection from prosecution under the law. Among other so-called “rights,” ONAC membership:

provides you a means to receive your constitutional rights in attending earth based indigenous American native spiritually empowering and healing ceremonies – especially Native American Church indigenous ceremonies that involve sacraments (peyote, cannabis, ayahuasca, etc.) that are otherwise illegal for Non-Members to partake and or be in possession of. [ONAC 2015a]

Some ONAC affiliates go farther than that. ONAC of Soma Veda (ONACS), based in Florida, offers its members the ability to practice alternative medical therapies without a license, or to practice beyond the scope of their training:

If you practice any form of alternative, complimentary and or spiritually based healing work and either do not have a license and or are practicing outside your mandated scope of practice you are at risk! In order to continue your ability to practice Spiritually and or Energetically based [therapies], you will need to become an active Member of ONACS according to your authorized scope of practice. [ONACS 2016]

The ONAC version of evangelism—or what the DEA petition process calls “efforts at propagation”— looks and reads more like a multilevel marketing scheme than a growing religious movement. The ONAC-Soma Veda website reads:

In consideration of How to Start Oklevueha NACS Independent branch, ask yourself:

• Was your healing and natural medicine training apprentice style?

• Was your training in Native American and or Indigenous Medicine?

• Do you have a current license but are having issues with your full scope of practice?…

• Are you concerned about mandatory Vaccination issues for yourself or your children?

• Have you been hiding your healing work? Keeping it on the “Down Low”, avoiding marketing or advertising because of fear?…

• Do you host Ceremony, Sacrament, Purification Lodges or other Native and or Indigenous practices at your home or property?

If any of the above is true…

Well, you should know the answer by now! We can help you! Time to step into the light!

Membership in ONAC-affiliated churches is available for a fee, with substantial discounts for military veterans. ONAC-Soma Veda charges $100 for a membership at the basic level; ONAC itself charges $200. In addition, both ONAC and ONAC-Soma Veda offer the right to establish independent branches under their leadership; ONAC-Soma Veda charges $7500 to do so. It is probable that other branches offer the same right; Mooney recently repudiated New Haven NAC for establishing Ayahuasca Healings as an independent branch without his approval. Unfortunately, many details of the hierarchy, structure and finances of ONAC’s operation remain obscure. However, Mooney estimates that 300 churches operate under ONAC auspices (Brown 2016; Capps 2016). According to Mooney himself, membership has grown from 2000 in 2014 to 20,000 in 2016—a tenfold increase in a year and a half (Capps 2016).

The growth is driven by Mooney’s contentious claim that ONAC membership is a “bulletproof” means of subverting federal drug law:

“We don’t have the money to hire your attorneys, but we have the information to tell your attorneys that’s bulletproof and will get you off,” Mooney said. “We’ve got them by the short hairs, and it’s a matter of time before it’s all clean and clear…Once this gets out, it’s going to explode,” Mooney says, “it’s flipping going to explode.” (Capps 2016)

Apparently, not everyone agrees that an ONAC membership card is a “bulletproof” way to foil the cops—including ONAC’s own former attorney, Matthew Pappas. In the course of a very tawdry falling out with the church full of accusations and counter-accusations, Pappas released a letter to the public detailing his departure—he says, resignation—from the church. While crisscrossing the country to help defend ONAC-affiliated arrestees, Pappas became aware of Mooney’s “bulletproof” claim.

As we began helping people around the country who had been charged with crimes or had their sacraments taken by police or local authorities, I learned that James had been telling people they were “bulletproof” from law enforcement and had nothing to worry about when introducing them to ONAC and “gifting” branches while money was paid to him under the proverbial table. More and more people reported they were angry that they’d been promised that they were protected from the law yet had been arrested and lost thousands and thousands of dollars they had put in on a sincere and religious basis because of representations made by James Mooney.” (Pappas 2016:2-3)

Pappas began to feel that Mooney’s interest in money was inappropriate, and that many of his actions put the church and its members in danger. He drew up an agreement for Mooney and other church leaders to sign, and presented it to the president and chief operating officer of the church, who in turn took it to Mooney.

The agreement I had proposed required that anyone out talking to potential branch leaders about new branches of the church could not make representations that church membership led to being “bulletproof” from arrest, attacks and seizures by the government. It did not affect anything spiritual – it required representations about the law not be made to make it seem the church totally protected people without any risk. The agreement also required that ONAC leaders have any representations that were being made regarding legal protections be first approved in writing by legal counsel. Finally, the agreement required that people seeking to start branches be subject to a background check as well as a spirituality evaluation. Another issue I had discovered was that some branch leaders had questionable backgrounds that should have been considered so as not to cause risk for other members and branches of the church. (Pappas 2016:4-5)

Based on Mooney’s refusal to sign the agreement, Pappas resigned. In the fracas, Howard Mann was made the new president of ONAC. According to various sources (here, here, and here, though two of these sources may be the same author), Mann deals in online gambling and pornography. His newest venture, according to Pappas, is commercial marijuana.

Tomorrow (hopefully) I will finalize this series with a discussion. Stay tuned.

Citations and links (in order of appearance)

AyaQuest blog post. 2016. “Peaceful Mountain Way Inexperienced?” Accessed at on April 6, 2017.

Retreat Guru review. 2016. “Peaceful Mountain Way Holistic Healing – Ayahuasca in America.” Accessed at on April 6, 2017.

Mora, Christina. 2016. “Americans travel to Kentucky to try ‘spiritual enlightenment’ drug.” WLKY. Accessed at  on April 6, 2017.

WKYT. 2016. “Questions raised about what caused woman’s death inside church.” Accessed at on April 6, 2017.

Kocher, Greg. 2016. Lexington Herald-Leader. “Berea police investigate woman’s death at Native American church.”  Accessed at on April 6, 2017.

Carpenter, Kristin. 2014. “Brief of Amici Curiae the National Council of Native American Churches et al., Mooney v. Holder, No. 14-15143. (US 9th Cir. Court of Appeals, July 25, 2014). Accessed at on May 20, 2016.

NACNA 2016. “National Council Does Not Condone Faux Native American Churches or Marijuana Use.” Indian Country Today. Accessed at on April 19, 2016.

Churchill, Ward. 2003. “Spiritual Hucksterism: The Rise of the Plastic Medicine Men.” In Shamanism: A Reader, edited by Graham Harvey, 324–33. New York: Psychology Press.

ONAC 2016 “Oklevueha Native American Church – History.” Accessed May 25, 2016.

Brown, Karina. 2016. “Ruling Doesn’t Settle Future of Native American Church.” Courthouse News Service. April 15. Accessed April 18, 2016.

State of Utah v. Mooney, No. 20010787 (Supreme Court Utah June 22, 2004). Accessed at on May 22, 2016.

Agar, John. 2015. “Religious Marijuana Use By ‘Medicine Man’ No Defense to Federal Charge.” Grand Rapids News, Oct. 21. Accessed May 17, 2016.

State of Ariz. v. Tracy Elise, No. CR2013-001555-007 DT (Superior Ct. Ariz. Maricopa Cty. March 2, 2016). Accessed at on May 22, 2016.

ONAC. 2015a. “Why Being a Member of Oklevueha Native American Church Will Benefit You.” Accessed Sept. 25, 2015.

ONACS (Oklevueha Native American Church Soma Veda) 2016. “Start Oklevueha NACS Independent Branch.” Accessed May 24, 2016.

Capps, Reilly. 2016. “Cult leader or religious savior? This pro-drug exile is being called both.” The Rooster. Accessed at on March 3, 2017.

Pappas, Matthew S. 2016. “Re: Defamatory Statement by Joy Graves.” Accessed at on March 25, 2017.

Reject James Mooney. 2016. “Internet Porn and Gambling Promoter Slated as New Leader of Oklevueha Native American Church. Accessed at on April 5, 2017.

Reject James Mooney. 2016. “Meet the new chairman of ONAC: Money Man Howard “Gambling/Porn King” Mann.” Accessed at on April 5, 2017.

2 thoughts on “Pandora’s Brew: The New Ayahuasca Part 6

  1. disclaimer – we realize that this post exceeds the number of words generally allowed. However, the length of this article and the number of statements made about Oklevueha NAC (a few of which are in error) requires a significant response.

    To Christina Callicott and the readers of Savage Minds.
    Your conclusion to the series “Pandora’s Brew” makes a number of important and salient points in the consideration of indigenous medicines, religion and ceremonies. We want to make it known to your readers and to you that we share most if not all of those same concerns. To make sure that facts are presented that make clear some of the scholarly research you have done, we want to share a few things that you may not have discovered since no one contacted us here at Oklevueha Native American Church for our input into your work.
    It is undeniable that there has been an explosion of new-age and shamanic work and therapies being offered in our society. While the gradual “feel-good” new age mysticism has grown slowly over the last few decades, more aggressive therapies and beliefs have become popular at a fairly rapid pace over the last few years. Ayahuasca has particularly been touted as a solution to many of societies’ ills, from clinical psychosis to PTSD to depression. While it is undeniable that many people have been helped through work with this powerful plant-based medicine, the possibility of negative experience is obviously there when administered by those with little experience or training and especially by those who have begun to see themselves as shaman and above the human condition – as you so aptly pointed out, what has been called the “ego-explosion”.
    The UDV organization has indeed done a better job of policing internally these concerns than most. They are a sister-organization to our church and we have taken their advice in learning to deal with our own concerns. Oklevueha Native American Church was, for the first 15 years of its existence, primarily concerned with Peyote, Sweat Lodges and other, mostly traditional North American Native plants and ceremonies. Because of the now famous court case against the founders, James and Linda Mooney, where the Utah Supreme Court decided unanimously in their favor and the Federal Government rescinded all pending charges against them, we have received numerous requests for protection of other plant based medicines under our umbrella. We resisted this at first, but, after seeing the effectiveness of these other indigenous medicines (or sacraments as they are sometimes called), we realized that the positive work being done needed to be protected under the same requirements and guidelines as peyote.
    We freely admit that there has been a learning curve in the process and that we made some mistakes as we incorporated these groups as “branches” of our church. Ayahuasca Healings was one such experience.
    As part of our membership requirement, each member has to agree to abide by a series of principles encapsulated in our Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct. When members (and especially branch leaders) violate those codes, we make an effort to teach them correct principles in order to bring them into compliance. If that does not work and especially if there is no intention to comply, the person or branch is put on “probationary” status which means they can no longer state or imply they are part of our organization. This status continues until we are satisfied they are willingly complying with those codes.
    Ayahuasca Healings approached us when they found out that the branch they had thought was authorized to sponsor them in Oklevueha NAC (ONAC) was on probation and had no authority to do so. They seemed to eagerly agree to all that we required of them and indicated to us their medicine people were experienced Peruvian shaman of impeccable character. Over the next few months, we received a number of complaints about their actions including having less qualified people leading their ceremonies, advertising their “retreats” and charging large amounts for participation, and failing to keep commitments to those who came to them. We investigated these allegations and put forth to them a number of steps they would have to take to avoid probation and having to stop offering ceremonies and personal work for people in conjunction with our organization.
    At that point, they chose to withdraw from our organization rather than comply. Those who had joined our organization were informed that we no longer recommended they work with Ayahuasca Healings and that we would work with them to find alternative ceremonies with qualified medicine people. At this time, they are still on probation and have shown no inclination to comply with our requirements to change that. There are a few other branches that are also on probationary status and are expected to not use our name or logo until they come into compliance. One mentioned in a previous article (ONAC of Soma Veda) is also no longer affiliated with Oklevueha NAC as they would not follow our guidelines.
    We have around 200 active branches that are part of Oklevueha NAC. Many are simply growers of indigenous medicines or small groups that serve a limited number of people. A few specialize in assisting those who have cancer or other serious illnesses to deal with their situation. A few are also medical researchers who are under our umbrella in order to continue their research into how these ceremonies and sacraments actually help people – documenting their efforts and contributing to the known science in those areas.
    You mentioned in a previous installment a branch where a death occurred in conjunction with a ceremony. Those attending (participants rather than leaders) have assured us that the accident happened well after the ceremony had ended and was purely an accident and not caused in any way by the ceremony. As far as we have ascertained, those participants still work with the leaders there, confident that they are safe. We await the official investigation and will take action there if it is warranted.
    We still occasionally have to encourage branches to change what and how they do things in order to be sure that there is due respect for the native ways and culture and that people are not just trying to legally get “high” or thumb their noses at legal authorities. Our approach is directly spiritual and earth based. That is what the Codes mentioned above address and what we require.
    We are also aware that there are elements within the native communities and tribes that really hate what we are doing and indicate they feel it is an affront to their ancient ways. There are others that support our efforts. Leslie Fool Bull and Richard Swallow (Lakota Sioux medicine men of the Pineridge and Rosebud Reservations) both blessed James Mooney to take the medicine to the “white man” which we understand to mean all people. This is remarkable in itself as Leslie Fool Bull was the grandson of Sitting Bull who was massacred along with hundreds of his tribal members at Wounded Knee by the “whites”. His willingness to forgive the “white” people and direct James to bless them with indigenous medicine (sacraments) is amazing and well documented.
    We will continue to strive to always honor the culture and sacraments of the indigenous peoples and teach those who come to us the respect and responsibility they must have as they participate in these ceremonies. We cannot go against what the person who created this organization (Leslie Fool Bull) asked of us even if some Natives are unhappy about it. It is our sacred duty.
    Oklevueha Native American Church

  2. “Some natives are unhappy about it” ??? !!! Really? “Willingnesss to forgive the ‘white’ people” ???!! For Wounded Knee Massacre ? Come on, really. Russell Means would roll over in his grave if he ever heard something like that. All you are doing is “whitening” a Native American religion, and thus contributing to the extinction of peyote among native people. What you need to be legit is the blessing of the NAC Church, the true owners of the peyote religion.

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